Saturday, December 1, 2012

Light weight starter

lightweight starter tag

                                 Never operate your starter in excess of 10 seconds per starting attempt.  Allow 20 seconds to allow starter to cool between attempts.  Repeat up to 5 more times (all Sky-Tec starters can handle at least a total of 60 seconds of combined cranking time per half hour - some far more - but don't test it!).  If engine fails to start, allow 30 minutes for starter to fully cool down before repeating (you might want to talk with a competent mechanic as to why your expensive aircraft engine didn't fire on 2-3 blades like the good ones always do).
          There are little to maintenance requirements for a Sky-Tec starter.  You may apply a very small amount of dry-silicone type lubricant or light LPS (1) to the drive pinion gear and/or shaft (Lycoming models) to minimize surface corrosion.  But typically the best maintenance for your Sky-Tec starter is regular use.  

                Never pressure wash the starter with water or any form of degreasing agent.  Simply wipe it clean to remove any surface contaminants.  

starting system


What is a kickback?  
            A kickback is a case in which a cylinder of your engine fires before the piston reaches TDC (top-dead-center) and the piston tries to go backward.  A single cylinder can produce as much as 25-50+ HP and is bound to win in setting the direction of rotation over a 2HP starter.  Kickbacks can be momentary:  Cylinders 1, 3 & 4 do the right thing and keep the prop going the right direction, but that #2 cylinder trying to go the wrong way sends a shocking impact to the whole engine and especially accessories - most namely, the STARTER. 
what causes kickbacks?
            The overall answer is, “The engine’s ignition system”.  That is to broad an answer to be really useful, so let’s narrow that down.  If a magneto has just been installed and was not static-timed correctly, a kickback may occur.  Other than that simple cause, different ignition systems can have different types of problems that are the root cause of the problem.  Let’s see which ones your aircraft may have: 
If you have a  “shower of sparks” starting system (also called “retard point mag”), go to #1, below.
If you have impulse couplers in both mags, go to #2, below.
If you have an impulse coupler in only one mag, go to #2, below. 
#1 Problems with “shower of sparks” starting systems.
             This type of system relies on a set of points on one of the magnetos that is set to fire at or after TDC and a vibrator system to generate multiple high-voltage sparks when this set of points is enabled.  The normal, advanced, set of points in both magnetos must be disabled during cranking or a kickback may occur. 
           A complex key switch for magneto selection and starting is used to perform this function.  When the key is turned to the START position, several things must happen at once:  the normal P-Leads of both magnetos are grounded to prevent the magnetos from firing too early, the P-Lead to the retarded points in one of the magnetos is un-grounded to enable firing at TDC, the “shower of sparks” vibrator is turned on and the starter relay is activated.  If any one of the following problems is present, a kickback may occur: 
           The key-switch is bad and one of the normal P-Leads remains ungrounded during cranking.  This allows the normal, advanced points to fire early and cause a kickback. 
   One of the P-Leads is broken or loose.  This allows the normal, advanced points to fire early and cause a kickback. 
One or both of the magnetos are defective. 
#2 Problems with impulse-coupler starting systems.
This type of system relies on a spring-loaded mechanism in one or both magnetos which, when turned slowly, will “snap” forward at the correct time and accelerate the armature in the magnetic field to produce a stronger spark.  At the same time, the firing is mechanically retarded to fire at TDC or after. 
                         If you have impulse couplers in BOTH magnetos, go to #3 below.  If you have an impulse coupler in only one (the left) magneto, one or more of the following problems can cause a kickback: 
You have a separate push-button for the starter and you are cranking with the magneto switch in the BOTH position.  This allows the magneto that does not have a coupler to fire early and cause a kickback.  You may get away with this starting procedure for years and hundreds of starts as the spark will be weak - but, one day, the mixture, temperature and fate will be just right an you will have a kickback. 
You have a separate push-button for the starter and you are cranking with the magneto switch in the LEFT position.  A defective switch or broken or loose P-Lead to the right magneto, allowing it to fire while cranking and cause a kickback. 
You have a key-start switch and the switch is defective or there is a broken or loose P-Lead to the right magneto, allowing it to fire while cranking and cause a kickback. 
The impulse coupler in the Left magneto is defective and fires early. 
#3 – impulse couplers in both magnetos. 
An impulse coupler in one of the magnetos is defective and fires early.
Troubleshooting the Ignition System 
                           Some simple tests can be made with an accurate mili-ohmmeter which will find many of the potential problems.  Measuring resistance between the aircraft frame (ground) and the P-Lead terminal on each magneto while trying to crank (with the battery disconnected, of course) should show low resistance to ground while attempting to crank the engine (for impulse coupled mags). 
Put a timing light on the magneto.  Is it firing before top dead center? 
                       Remember that, in the case of a key-start switch going bad, it may be intermittent.  Therefore, watching the meter while wiggling the key in the “crank” position may show the resistance to ground varying.  This indicates a switch problem.


Starter ERB-8012

 Starter  ERB-8012, Clockwise rotation, 24 Volt, 9 tooth - 10/12 Pitch Gear. The E-Drive starters do not have a core charge. These starters are sold as new outright without any core charges or returns. The E-Drive starters have a two year unlimited hours warranty period. Kelly Aerospace's new E-Drive starters offer distinct advantages over earlier Prestolite, Delco and even newer lightweight, permanent magnet starters. With the E-Drive starters, there is no mechanical Bendix, which makes them immune to kick-back damage. Fits all Lycoming engines, without modification. Also incorporates a solid-state solenoid control for greater reliability. The ERB8012 is an FAA/PMA approved replacement for MHB4015, MMU4001 and MMU6001.



Service Information Letter A 126

E-Drive Starter Features:

Immune to Kick-Back Damage 
»No Shear Pin costs here! Perfect spin
» Sweet spot engine starts. Does not drain your power like other starters.
Lightweight » Only 9.5 lbs.
No mechanical Bendix
Electromechanical solid-state solenoid
Powerful Permanent Magnet » High Torque Performance
Easy Installation » Lycoming engines
Tough » Tested under the most extreme environmental conditions
FAA/PMA approved
2 Year Unlimited Hours Warranty
Aviation Designed & Developed - No Automotive Aftermarket Parts Used!
Low Current Draw
12 volt or 24 volt
Superior Duty Cycle
TBO Starter - Capable of providing Maintenance Free service to your engine's TBO... and beyond.

Solid-State Solenoid Control
The Printed Circuit Board (PCB) solenoid controller uses the latest in Surface Mount Technology (SMT) components. Each control is environmentally hardened and tested under the most extreme conditions. The field serviceable unit eliminates mechanical contacts for improved reliability and longer life. Monitoring the health status of the engine, starter, battery, and operational duty cycle will soon become a reality through enhancements to our proprietary solenoid control system.

E-Drive Starter vs. Sky-tec 149-NL

E-Drive Lycoming aircraft starter
Cranking Speed (rpm) 
is the speed at which your starter rotates the engine's crankshaft during a start. You may think that a higher cranking speed would be better but this is not always the case. Your starter is part of the engine's starting system which also includes the fuel and ignition systems. These systems have been designed to provide good starting characteristics for a particular starting speed range. For most engines this speed is between 120 and 180 rpm. Cranking your engine faster than 200 rpm may disengage the magneto impulse couplings thereby advancing the ignition timing which will result in poor engine starting and can even induce kickbacks! A typical 6 cylinder Lycoming engine requires 50-60 ft*lbs of torque to start. For this load condition, consider the following comparison (see chart, point B for Edrive and point D for Sky-Tec).

Sky-Tec - Spins the engine too fast
295/305 rpm at 50 ft*lbs of torque.
E-Drive - Ideal cranking, well below limit
145/155 rpm at 50 ft*lbs of torque.
Current Draw 
directly affects the amount of heat that builds up in your starter when cranking your engine. The more current your starter pulls, the more heat that is generated in the starter. Increased heat reduces cranking performance, shortens the overall life of your starter and drains your battery. The rate of temperature increase also decreases the duty cycle of the starter which means fewer starts before the starter reaches its temperature limit. Current draw also affects other components in the aircraft starter electrical system. Contactors, terminals, and cables are all adversely affected by high current draw. Current draw is particularly important to pilots who have the battery located in the rear of the aircraft. The cable between the battery and the starter acts as a resistor which causes a voltage drop over its length. As current increases so does this voltage drop. The resulting electrical power lost to heat over the length of the cable is not available for use by the starter. Higher current draw results in greater voltage drop and less power to the starter. For cranking a typical Lycoming 6-cylinder engine with a 24-volt system and assuming a 50 ft*lb torque load the following comparison should be considered (see chart).

Sky-Tec - Pulls about 2-1/2 times as much current, shortening starter life
165/175 amps
E-Drive - More than Double the number of starts and duty cycle of Sky-Tec!
60/70 amps
Current Draw also determines the number of starts you can get from your battery. For a given charge condition, your battery is capable of delivering a given number of starts and that number is directly related to the amount of current your starter draws while cranking. A starter drawing twice the current will only give you half the number of starts before battery depletion.

Duty Cycle
is important as it reflects how well the starter can tolerate repeated starting attempts and over-cranking abuse. Warranty data from starter manufacturers indicates that the principle cause of in-service starter motor failures is over-cranking abuse. A starter with a duty cycle twice that of another will be able to deliver twice the number of starts within a given window of time without overheating. This is an important performance indicator when considering a starter as it will have a direct impact on starter longevity.

The operational limitations for the E-Drive are 10-seconds of engagement time followed by 20-seconds of rest for 20 consecutive starts! No other starter can match that kind of performance!

The Hartzell starters have undergone rigorous durability & laboratory tests including operating at temperatures ranging from -45 to 180°F shock tests, sinusoidal vibration sweeps, load cycling, normal starting, abusive starting, starting with induced kick-backs, and other environmental/operational extremes. The new starter lines from Hartzell Engine Technologies are capable of providing maintenance free service to your engine's TBO... and beyond.

Tuesday, November 20, 2012

Cessna SEL-05-01 Rev.01 121114

Cessna SEL-05-01 has been revised on dated 14th November to change the DISCUSSION Section to make it clear that not all of the CAP Inspections have been superseded by SID Inspections. Please replace any copy of SEL-05-01 with the attached copy of SEL-05-01 Revision 1, which is printed in its entirety.


EFFECTIVITY All Cessna Model 120, 140/140A, 150/A150/F150/FA150, 152/A152/F152/FA152, 170/170A/170B, 172/F172/FA172, 175, 177/177RG, 180, 182/A182/R182, 185/A185, 188/T188/A188, 190, 195, 205, 206/U206/P206, 207 airplanes
DISCUSSION : Reference Model 100 Series Piston Engine Continued Airworthiness Program Manual part number D5133-13.
              The purpose of  Cessna SEL-05-01 is to provide notification that some of the existing Continued Airworthiness Program (CAP) Manual inspections have been superseded and replaced by Supplemental Structural Inspection Program (SID) inspections.
            The SID inspections have been incorporated into the affected Maintenance/Service Manuals. To access the SID inspections online, go to, Customer Access. Then select either the 100 Series or the 200 Series aircraft from the "My Models" section. On the appropriate model page there is a link on the right hand side under "Additional Information" for "SID Information". This will take you to all of the 100 and 200 SID documents and brochure information.
Refer to TABLE 1, TABLE 2, and TABLE 3 for the CAP inspections that have been superseded and replaced by a SID inspection. Accomplishment of the superseded CAP inspection is no longer required.
Aged Aircraft Maintenance Program
Aged Aircraft Maintenance training Program

Sunday, October 21, 2012

Lycoming SI 1546

Lycoming issued Service Instruction No. 1546 DATE: October 4, 2012 on Starter

SUBJECT: Specific Requirements for Installation and Removal of Electrical Lead on Hartzell
                     Engine Technologies, LLC (Previously Kelly Aerospace) Starters
TIME OF COMPLIANCE: At each removal and installation of the starter electrical lead
MODELS AFFECTED: All Lycoming direct drive engines.
                     This Service Instruction includes specific installation and removal requirements of the electrical leads for Hartzell Engine Technologies (HET), LLC starters.
Until further notice of a starter design change, during installation or removal of any Hartzell Engine Technologies, LLC starter or the removal of the starter electrical lead for other maintenance purposes, it is critical to hold the bottom nut on the starter stud with a wrench to prevent this stud from rotating when torquing or removing the nut (on top of the stud) that attaches the power cable to the starter. 
                        Rotation of the starter stud identified will cause internal damage to the starter. Torque the nuts to 40 (4.624 Nm).

Saturday, October 13, 2012

Aircraft maintenance: Cessna 152 - Seat Movement

Aircraft maintenance: Cessna 152 - Seat Movement:           A recent occurrence report concerned a Cessna 152 whose pilot, among other problems, reported that  his seat was loose in flight...

Lycoming SB No.533B

Aircraft maintenance: Lycoming SB No.533B:             Lycoming issued Mandatory Service Bulletin No. 533B dated October 4, 2012 that Supersedes Service Bulletin No. 533A) SUBJECT: ...

Lycoming SB No. 603

Aircraft maintenance: Lycoming SB No. 603:  Lycoming issued Service Bulletin No. 603 October 4, 2012 SUBJECT: Reprint of Slick Service Bulletin SB112 MODELS AFFECTED: All Lycomi...

Saturday, September 8, 2012


Cessna 152 : The parking brake system consists of a control knob on the instrument panel which is connected to linkage at the brake master cylinders. At the brake master cylinders, the control operates locking plates which trap pressure in the system after the master cylinder piston rods have been depressed by toe operation of the rudder pedals. To release the parking brake, depress the pedals and push the control knob full in.

PARKING. Parking precautions depend principally on local conditions. As a general precaution, set parking brake or chock the wheels and install the controls lock. In severe
weather and high wind conditions, tie down the aircraft as outlined in paragraph 2-7 of AMM  if a hangar is not available.

Parking Brake :It is applied by depressing both toe brakes and then pulling the "Park Brake" lever to the pilot’s left. The toe brakes are then released but pressure is maintained in the system thereby leaving both brakes engaged

Sunday, September 2, 2012

Cessna 152 MM TR06

1. To revise the replacement time limits for the landing light switch.
2. To revise the replacement time limits for the landing and taxi light switch.
3. To add the replacement time limits for the beacon light switch.

26. During the next annual inspection and every four years thereafter, replace the Landing and Taxi Light Switch, or the Landing Light switch as applicable.
A. Replace the Landing and Taxi Light Switch with part number TTGC-TA201TW-B, as applicable.
B. Replace the Landing Light Switch with part number C906-5, as applicable, for aircraft serials:
(1) 15279406 thru 15285833
(2) F15201449 thru F15201943
(3) A1520735 thru A1521025
(4) FA1520337 thru FA1520387.
27. During the next annual inspection and every four years thereafter, replace the Switch (Beacon Light) with part number TA201TW-B.

Thursday, August 23, 2012

Fuel System - Inspection

 Note: compliance through extra off job sheet along with 100hr schedule
1. Check fuel caps, cap gaskets, cap adaptors, cap adaptor gaskets, fuel filler neck to adaptor sealer, fuel gage transmitter gaskets, gage transmitter access covers, and upper surface inspection covers for condition, proper sealing, security, alignment, etc. Ensure to service and clean these areas, replacing parts as necessary.
2. Drain and flush the fuel strainer and carburetor bowl completely.
3. Inspect the interior of metal fuel tanks for signs of corrosion, which may indicate water contamination.
• Inspect the interior of bladder tanks for wrinkles, broken or missing hangers, etc.
4.If signs of contamination are found, alert the owner and fuel supplier of your findings for corrective action.
5. If aircraft has a fuel drain valve replaced with a cap or plug, you should suspect water contamination in the respective tank. 
6. Take precautions to preclude water migration in the fuel tank system from an internal source (free water coming out of solution). Keep fuel tanks full when the airplane will not be operated regularly to minimize moisture condensation within the tanks. Keep fuel tanks full between flights, provided weight and balance limitations permit. Limit the fuel tanks exposure to large temperature fluctuations as much as possible. If the airplane has been exposed to sustained wing low or unusual attitudes or a fuel tank has been run dry, sump contaminants may have migrated throughout the fuel tank system.
7. Regularly check and verify quality controls are in place to ensure you receive only dry, uncontaminated fuel from a supplier. Have on-field checks and verify to ensure continued supply of dry uncontaminated fuel to an operator. Gain assurance that the fuel supply has been checked for contamination and is properly filtered before allowing the airplane to be serviced. When ordering fuel, specifically state the exact fuel grade and quantity needed. Be present at each and every refueling and observe the fueling process.
8. Collect all sampled fuel in a safe container and dispose of properly.
9. Replace all safety items removed during contamination checks. Correct all unsatisfactory conditions found during or any examination prior to further flight.


Work to be carried out
AME/ App. Person








Completely deflate tyre and tube and break loose tyre beads. Extreme care must be taken to prevent tyre damage when removing tyre from wheel halves.
           Serious injury can result from attempting to separate wheel halves with tyre and tube inflated.
Remove nuts and washers.
Remove thru bolts and washers.
Separate and remove wheel halves and brake rotating disc from tyre and tube.
Remove retaining rings grease seal retaining rings, grease seal felts, grease seal retainers and bearing cones.
           Bearing cups are a press fit in wheel halves and should not be removed unles a new part is to be installed. To remove bearing cups, heat wheel in boiling water for 30mins or in an oven not to exceed 121°c (250°F) using an arbor press, if available press out bearing cup and press in new bearing cup while wheel half is still hot.
Clean all metal parts and felt grease seals in suitable solvent and dry thoroughly.
           A soft bristle brush may be used to remove hardened grease, dust or dirt.
Inspect wheel halves for cracks and damage.

p. Person











Inspect bearing cones, cups, retaining rings, grease seal retaining rings, grease seal felts and grease seal retainers for wear or damage.
Inspect thru bolts and nuts for cracks in threads or cracks in radius under bolt head.
Replace cracked or damaged wheel half.
Inspect tyre for side wall cracking, uneven wear and other damages. Record tyre                               and mfg date                      
Inspect tube for excess creasing and localised thinning/bulging. Check for leads especially around valve stem by inflating the tube and immersing in a water tank. Record                               and mfg date                      
Replace damaged, retainer rings and seals.
Replace worn or damaged bearing cups and cones.
Replace any corrosion or small nicks.
Repair reworked area of wheel by cleaning thoroughly. Then applying one coat of clear lacquer paint.
Pack bearings with grease.
Assemble bearing cone, grease seal retainer, grease seal felt and retaining ring into each wheel half.
Insert tube in tyre, aligning index marks on tyre and tube.
           The light weight point of the tyre is marked with a red dot on the side tyre wall and heavy weight piont of the tube is amrked with a contrasting colour line (usually near inflation valve stem) when mating tyre with tube these marks adjacent to each other.
Replace wheel half into tyre and tube (side opposite valve stem) aligning base of valve stem in valve slot with washer under head of the bolt. Insert bolt through wheel half.
Place wheel half into other side of tyre and tube aligning valve stem in valve slot.



Insert washer and nuts on the bolts and pre-torque to 10 to 50
           Uneven or improper torque of the nuts can cause failure of the bolts with resultant wheel failure.
Prior to torquing nuts, inflate tube with approximately 15-20 p.s.i air pressure to seat tyre.
           Do not use impact wrenches on the bolts or nuts.
Dry torque all nuts evenly to a torque value of 140 – 150
Paint 1” wide creap marks on tyre and rim with red paint.
Inflate tyre to correct pressure.